The View Of The Scholars Of Islaam With Regard To The Imaamate And Their Proofs Of Its Obligation
Imaam Abul-Hasan al-Maawardee, rahimahullaah, said, "The imaamate is established to achieve khilaafah (caliphate) upon the Prophetic way in safeguarding the religion, and in running the worldly affairs and it is obligatory by consensus (ijmaa') to place in that position one who will carry out that duty in the ummah. Even if al-Asamm was an exception, and people disagreed as to whether its obligation was due to the intellect or the Sharee'ah. So a group said, 'It is obligatory based upon the intellect due to the nature of intelligent people which causes them to accept a leader who will prevent them from mutual oppression. Al-Afwah al-Awdee said, 'The people will not be rectified by a state of anarchy, there being no leader for them, nor will there be leadership if the ignorant take control.''
"And a group say, 'Rather it is obligatory based upon the Sharee'ah, not the intellect, since the Imaam (ruler) establishes affairs of the Sharee'ah which may according to the intellect not have been meant as worship, therefore it could not be the intellect which caused its obligation. Then they agree upon its obligation due to the saying of Allaah, the Most High:
"So it is obligatory upon us to obey those in authority amongst us, and they are the leaders in authority over us.' Then he said: Hishaam ibn 'Urwah reported from Aboo Saalih from Aboo Hurayrah that Allaah's Messenger said, "After me rulers will take charge, so you will be ruled by righteous rulers, and by wicked rulers along with their wickedness. So hear and obey them in everything that is in accordance with the truth. So if they do good then that is for them and for you. And if they commit evil, then that is for you and against them." He said, 'So when the imaamate is established to be obligatory, then its obligation is binding upon some only (Fard Kifaayah), as with Jihaad and seeking knowledge.'"
Al-Qaadee Aboo Ya'laa, rahimahullaah, said, "Establishment of the Imaam is obligatory." And Imaam Ahmad, radiyallaahu 'anhu, said in the narration of Muhammad ibn 'Awf ibn Sufyaan al-Himsee, "There will be discord if there is no Imaam in charge of the affairs of the people. This is because when the Companions differed in the enclosure (of Banoo Saqeefah), and the Ansaar said, 'There should be a ruler from us and a ruler from you.' So Aboo Bakr and 'Umar, radiyallaahu 'anhumaa, rebutted this and said, 'The Arabs will not submit except to this branch of Quraysh,' and they quoted some narrations in that regard. So if the imaamate were not obligatory then such a discussion and debate for it would not have been proper. Also someone could have said, 'It is not obligatory, neither that it is established with Quraysh nor with other than them.'"
Imaamul-Haramayn said, "The matter of imaamate pertains to the details [of Islaam] (al-Furoo')."
So you see what they say with regard to the imaamate, that it is from the details (al-Furoo'), and is no more than a means. So it is there for the protection of the religion and for the running of the worldly affairs. Then there is disagreement about the proof for its obligation: is it the intellect or the Sharee'ah? We indeed hold that it is an obligation, but the two proofs quoted by al-Maawardee are not direct texts with regard to the imaamate, since they are more general than the matter of the imaamate and they refer to the obligation of obedience to rulers already established in authority, and likewise with the hadeeth. So perhaps Aboo Ya'laa left them aside because he saw that they are not clear proofs for this matter. Anyway, how can it be said about a matter like this, where there is difference about the proofs for its obligation, that it is the true goal of the religion, and the most important role of the Prophets... and the rest of the exaggerations said about it? These sayings have over-inflated this matter and give to it a far greater importance than its true importance, and have at the same time reduced the importance of 'aqeedah and of the religion itself.
Maududi said, "Therefore the goal aspired for in the Messengership of the Prophets, 'alayhimus-salaatu was-salaam, in this world did not cease to be the establishment of the Islamic Government upon the earth. Through this they could establish the complete system for human life which they brought from Allaah." I say:
Firstly: It is not possible to speak about the Messengers of Allaah and His Prophets based upon political conclusions and deductions. Rather the life stories of the Prophets and their histories are matters of the Hidden and Unseen which it is not possible to go into except when there is a text sent down as Revelation by Allaah to Muhammad . Allaah, the Most High, says at the beginning of the story of Yoosuf, 'alayhis-salaam:
Allaah, the Most High, says after the story of Nooh, 'alayhis-salaam:
Then this prohibition is even more severe when these political conclusions are contrary to what Allaah has informed about them. So Allaah has explained what their goal was in summary, saying:
Allaah, the Most High, said:
He narrated to us in detail about some of them, such as Nooh, Ibraaheem, Hood and Saalih. We have already spoken about their methodology in what has preceded, and have quoted the Aayaat which make clear their methodology and their goal. This is in full accordance with what Allaah mentioned about them in general terms, with regard to the call to tawheed, fighting against shirk and its manifestations, whilst calling to all good. But there is nothing in the Qur'aan nor in the Sunnah, to support what Maududi claimed in his saying, "Because of this the goal aspired to in the Messengership of the Prophets, 'alayhimus-salaatu was-salaam, in this world did not cease to be the establishment upon it of the Islamic Government," or the "Divine Government," as reported by an-Nadawee from Maududi. So whoever has clear proofs for this very serious matter, from the Book and the Sunnah then let him produce them, and upon us is eemaan and compliance.
Secondly: Maududi lived in a time of party political struggle, and rivalry and the struggle for leadership which spread throughout the east and the west. Then because he was a political leader and head of a party he imagined that the Prophets must have given great importance to, and striven, and fought to attain authority and to achieve rulership. Then his words which follow emphasises what I have said. He said, "The type of work carried out by the Prophet: So to construct this civilisation and this society on the earth, Allaah sent His Messengers in succession. This is because every society in this world, except for the society of monks, whether societies of ignorance or Islamic societies, then if they have a comprehensive philosophy for human life and an all-encompassing methodology for the running of the affairs of the world, then they must necessarily by their very nature take possession of authority and seize possession of the reins of the affairs, and organise human life according to its particular view. So without the desire for authority, there is no meaning for da'wah to a particular philosophy, and there is no meaning for what is lawful and what is forbidden, nor to the prescribed laws. As for the monk in this life, then he does not wish to take charge of its affairs. Rather his preoccupation is to attain his imaginary goal of salvation, by following a particular way which leads him to avoid this world and what it contains. Therefore he has no need of rulership and authority and does not seek any of that. But one who comes as a caller to a particular way to take care of the affairs of this world, and he believes that by following this way a person will attain salvation and success, then he must strive hard to attain the reins of rulership and authority, since as long as he does not have the required power to enforce his particular way, then it can never be established in the real world."
Maududi studied modern society and civilisation in all its branches and details, or most of them, and he believed that the Prophets had a society and civilisation comprising the same branches and details as those existing in present-day organised societies, except that they were different in their branches and details as those existing in their branches and details from the socieities and civilisations of ignorance (Jaahiliyyah). Then upon this belief he built the idea that every society having a comprehensive theory for life and an all-embracing methodology for running the affairs of the world, that they must by their very nature take possession of authority and seize possession of the reins of control of the affairs. Then the Prophets came with a society and civilisation of this type, and their society and civilisation must therefore take possession of authority and seize the reins of control of the affairs. They must strive and work hard to attain the reins of rulership and therefore, "The goal aspired for in the Messengership of the Prophets, 'alayhimus-salaatu was-salaam, in this world did not cease to be the establishment upon it of the Islamic Government, and to enforce upon it that complete system for human life which they brought from Allaah."
So hopefully it will have become clear to the reader that these conclusions are based upon intellectual and political analogies and deductions. They are not based upon proofs from the Qur'aan and the Prophetic Sunnah, and this is an area requiring Divine Revelation, not a place for intellectual and political discoveries.
Also he was under the false impression that people were of only two classes: Either a monk whose sole preoccupation is to reach his imaginary salvation...etc. and far removed are the Prophets from being of this type. However they may be similar, in the view of the people of politics, to the present-day scholars and callers: those who do not ride on the wave of politics, nor plunge into its hazards. Rather they follow the methodology of the Prophets in calling to Allaah, and of tawheed of Him, and that all worship should be made purely for Him, and warning against shirk, sins, innovation, with the wisdom of the Sunnah and with fine manners and preaching, and they are not infallible.
Then the other type of person is the one with political aspirations and cultural thinking who wishes to take the ummah to the highest levels of culture and society, and he wishes to establish the strongest state for his ummah. Then the Prophets are the most eminent and highest ranking of the people so they must, in his view, be of this distinct class. But it escaped him that the Prophets were a special independent class, neither belonging to these nor those. Rather they are people distinct and free from the folly of the monks and their ignorance, and also from the aspirations of the people of politics and their sly tricks and devilish means which they use to attain authority. The Prophets are the people who have their souls purest and furthest removed from personal ambitions, and they are those with the highest intellects, and the best characters, and the purest in their descent and lineage. They were chosen and preferred by Allaah for the guidance of mankind, and to rescue them from misguidance. So they committed themsleves fully to the field of calling to Allaah with full sincerity and selflessness. They did not desire any reward of wealth, status or sovereignty for that. Rather they only sought the Face of Allaah, and the Hereafter, and they bore patiently the various types of harm which would not be borne by other than them. Maududi however says, "Therefore every Prophet and every Messenger strove to cause a political revolution. So the efforts of some of them were limited to preparing the way and amassing the number of people required, such as Ibraaheem, 'alayhis-salaam; others actually managed to start revolutionary movements, but their Messengership finished before the Divine Government could be established at their hand, such as 'Eesaa, 'alayhis-salaam; and some of them managed with this movement to attain the level of success and victory, such as Moosaa, 'alayhis-salaam, and our noble leader Muhammad ."
Firstly: The number of Prophets and Messengers is in excess of a hundred and twenty thousand and Allaah only narrated to us the stories of about twenty-five of the Prophets and Messengers in the Qur'aan. Allaah, the Most High, says:
Allaah, the Most High, says:
So what is obligatory upon us is that we believe in all of the Prophets and Messengers and their Books generally and comprehensively, and in those and their Books which Allaah mentioned in particular, then we believe in them as they were named to us. With regard to those whom we are not informed of, and those whose stories were not narrated to us by His Messenger Muhammad , then this is from the affairs of the Hidden and Unseen. Then I believe that the like of sayings such as, "Therefore every Prophet and every Messenger strove to cause a political revolution..." is not from the knowledge inherited from the final Prophet , rather it is from the greatest affairs of the Hidden and Unseen which was kept hidden from Allaah's Mesenger by Allaah. So how can anyone else know it? Indeed we say: How is it permissible for any Muslim to speak about this when Allaah, the Most High, has said:
Allaah, the Most High, says:
Secondly: I believe that it is not permissible in the Sharee'ah with regard to the wise calls of the Prophets and their merciful guidance which comprised wisdom, knowledge, firmness, patient perseverance and full care and attention, to designate them as being attempts at political revolutions. Since political revolutions are brought about through plots, intrigues and conspiracies which are not undertaken except by people who are not concerned about spilling of blood, destruction of produce and offspring, and causing corruption upon the earth.
Thirdly: The interpretaion of the duty and goal of the Prophets is extremely dangerous due to its serious effect upon the ummah, since they will say, "If the Prophets were political leaders, and heads of revolutionary movements, then why should their followers not also be political revolutionaries and adopt the means necessary for their goal of political revolution, involving plots and whatever steps are necessary." Then they will be safe and preserved from error in causing political revolutions.
Fourthly: I do not know what Maududi intends by his saying, "The efforts of some of them were limited to preparing the way and amassing the number of people required." Also an-Nadawee reports from him the saying, "To preparation of the earth such as our noble leader Ibraaheem." Does he mean that they laid down political and revolutionary plans for the Prophets and political leaders who came after him, or does he mean something else? In any case this gives a very strange, and dreadful image of the Prophets, something not described in the Qur'aan or the Sunnah, nor known to the scholars of Islaam, and something which Allaah kept His Prophets far removed and free from. Indeed the story of Ibraaheem, for example, is very clear in the Book and the Sunnah, and Allaah repeats it a number of times in the Qur'aan. All of it is a struggle for tawheed, and for the destruction of the idols with proof and guidance, and with the hand when he had to resort to that and after he had proclaimed the clear message, and established the strong and irrefutable proofs upon the stubborn Mushriks, both the rulers and the people of the nation. He then physically destroyed their idols and false gods. So they became angry for their idols and seized him, and wished to give him the severest punishment. So they built a huge fire and threw him into it.
Then when their haughty and stubborn rejection reached its limit and all hope of their responding to the call of Allaah was cut off he abandoned them and performed Hijrah for Allaah, and Loot believed along with him and he said:
And Allaah did not mention anything about him concerning political revolutions, nor preparing the required number of people, nor laying down the way for it. Then to complete the story of Ibraaheem he made Hijrah to Shaam, then after a while he went with his wife Haajar and his son Ismaa'eel to Makkah, which was at the time uninhabited and did not have any of the means to support life, not even water. Then he left his wife and his son with Allaah's permission and returned to Shaam. So he set off back to Shaam and when he reached the mountain pass where they could not see him, he turned towards the Ka'bah and supplicated with these words whilst raising his hands, saying:
Then he made clear the purpose of that, saying:
And Ibraaheem, 'alayhis-salaam, visited his son, Ismaa'eel, 'alayhis-salaam, twice but did not find him as he had gone off in search of provision, so Ibraaheem returned from whence he had come. Then he visited him a third time, so when he saw him he stood to greet him and they welcomed each other as would be expected between father and son. Then Ibraaheem, 'alayhis-salaam, said, "O Ismaa'eel! Allaah has given me a command." He said, "Then do as you Lord as ordered you." He said, "And you will help me?" He said, "And I will help you." He said, "Then Allaah has commanded me to build a House here, and he pointed towards an area of ground raised above what surrounded it. So at that place they raised the foundations of the House. So Ismaa'eel would bring the stones whilst Ibraaheem built and Ismaa'eel passed the stones to him, and they were both saying:
So this is the story of Ibraaheem in the Book and the Sunnah. He called his people to Allaah and established proofs against them. Then he destroyed their idols, then he made Hijrah. Then these were his journeys from Shaam to visit his son Ismaa'eel in Makkah, in the valley devoid of vegetation. He had previously placed his son in this valley and had mentioned the purpose for which he had placed him there. Then when his son grew up they built the House together, and Allaah said to them both:
So what can be taken from these actions: his hijrah from his land, the land of civilisation to the desert of Shaam, then his placing his son in a land devoid of vegetation and without inhabitants and the means to support life, and from his declared goal?
Can it be taken from these actions that he was preparing the way and the required number of people to cause a political revolution?! And when did 'Eesaa establish a revolutionary movement?! And when was it stopped, or when did this revolution collapse?!! And what is the proof for this very dangerous saying?! Then how is it that no-one except Moosaa and Muhammad ever attained the level of success and triumph?! Even though every Prophet and every Messenger strove to achieve political revolution, as claimed by Maududi, then how is it they did not achieve triumph and success, when they numbered more than a hundred and twenty thousand?!
Can you not see, along with me, the bitter fruits of going to excesses, and the oppressive and dangerous results which shake the roots of eemaan and 'aqeedah?! Since if only two of the huge number of Prophets managed to attain success and triumph, then will an unbeliever, or those weak in eemaan and the ignorant, will they not judge that the rest of the Prophets failed and were frustrated? Even with regard to the strong Believer, is it not to be feared that his eemaan would be shaken and troubled, if it were really the case that the unbelieving Kisraas, and Caesars, and Pharaohs should succeed in the past and the present and reach their desired goal of establishing great states and advanced civilisations, yet the efforts of the Prophets did not meet with success and victory?!
If we lay down these goals and make false and fanciful judgements about the calls, then the result will appear to be very bad, and the problems which this causes will be very difficult to overcome. However if in deciding what their goals were and describing their actions we depend upon the Book of Allaah and the Sunnah of His Messenger who does not speak from his desires, then we will be following the correct methodology. And Allaah has laid down what their goals were, and explained their calls, saying:
Allaah, the Most High, said:
So this was their duty and this was their goal: the call to the tawheed of Allaah and to warn against shirk and sins, and to give good news of reward and Paradise to the Believers, and to warn the obstinate unbelievers of punishment in the Hell-Fire. So they carried out their duty and all reached the level of success and triumph, and Allaah aided them against their enemies in this world, and will aid them on the Day when the witnesses will stand forth, whereas the unbelievers in these correct standards will be the failures, the losers and the defeated in this world and the Hereafter. Allaah, the Most High, says:
Allaah, the Most High, says:
Allaah explained how His Prophets were victorious over their enemies in many stories in the Qur'aan. Allaah, the Most High, says about Nooh, 'alayhis-salaam:
Allaah, the Most High, says:
Allaah, the Most High, says:
So these were overwhelming and decisive victories granted to the Messengers, and clear triumphs and successes and also defeats, ruins, destruction and annihilation for the unbeleivers. So by these correct and true Qur'aanic standards laid down by Allaah, all of the Prophets attained success and triumph, because they all fulfilled their duty with which they were obligated. They propagated the messages from their Lord which they were duty-bound to propagate, and the end of their enemies was as Allaah has described. Whereas by those political, or imaginary standards, or whatever you wish to call them, none of them succeeded except Muhammad and Moosaa, 'alayhimus-salaam.
This is according to the theory of these people, but as for us, then we declare Moosaa and Muhammad, 'alayhimus-salaatu was-salaam, free from having striven to cause political revolution, and we declare their success and victory above and far removed from having been based upon any such foundation.
Then we come to the story of Moosaa, 'alayhis-salaam, and the story of his victory and success. Then Allaah certainly gave him a clear victory over the Pharaoh and his army. Allaah, the Most High, says:
So how did this great victory come about? Was it achieved by means of a political revolution through which Moosaa attained a throne of Egypt? The true answer is what Allaah informed us in the sublime Qur'aan. That Allaah chose and favoured Moosaa with Messengership and with His Speech to him directly. He placed upon him the duty of calling the Pharaoh to Allaah, and he carried out the command of his Lord, and he established the clear signs and proofs of the truthfulness of his message.
Allaah, the Most High, says:
Then the people of the Pharaoh merely incited him further against Moosaa and his people. Allaah, the Most High, says:
So Moosaa, 'alayhis-salaam, stood firm in the face of this tyranny, and this contains a clear lesson for the callers to Allaah.
Then when the affair reached its peak and the Children of Israa'eel complained to Moosaa:
Look at the manners in which the Prophets cultivated the people, and their patience in facing the calamities and severe trials, then Allaah reprimanded them so that they may take heed.
Then Allaah wished to destroy and annihilate them and to save Moosaa and the Children of Israa'eel from their distress. So He laid down a wise plan for them which contained no revolution or political upheaval, since the laws laid down for the Prophets and their manners reject treachery and secret plots and the spilling of blood for the attainment of authority, no matter how lofty the goal is. Allaah, the Most High, says:
So these are the means prescribed by the Sharee'ah, used by Moosaa and those who believed in him from his people. He patiently bore severe hardships and the slaughter of his people. That did not shake their eemaan, nor upset their 'aqeedah, nor cause their patient perseverance to cease. So the way to their victory and the destruction of their enemy was the way laid down for them by their Lord, which is what we have just read, and it does not contain anything of politics or establishment of a political revolution. Then there is a further point: if it were the case that Moosaa strove to bring about a political revolution and earnestly sought to seize the reins of power and to establish the aspired goal of the messages of the Prophets of Allaah, i.e. the divinely inspired state, then he would have quickly turned back and returned to Egypt since the ideal oppurtunity had risen. Allaah had destroyed the Pharaoh and his army and none remained in Egypt except the women, children and servants. So why did Moosaa not seize this great opportunity and establish the divinely inspired state in the land which Allaah described in His saying:
and instead he went to reside in the Sinai desert without any state, any authority or any divinely-inspired government?! Therefore we have to say: Moosaa was indeed a noble and great Messenger, and from the strong and firmly resolute, and he carried out his Messengership in the most perfect and complete manner. At his hand, Allaah destroyed the despotic tyrant Pharaoh and his army, and with him Allaah saved the Children of Israa'eel, and this is sufficient honour and excellence for him, and sufficient for him is the victory he acheived over the Pharaoh and his people.
Then as for Muhammad , then he was a man of 'aqeedah from the first instant and a Messenger of guidance. He patiently bore that which mountains could not bear, whilst conveying this 'aqeedah, He was offered sovereignty at the beginning and he refused it and the victory and the establishment of the State of Islaam which Allaah gave him came only as a reward for his patient perseverance, his taqwaa and his forbearance. So it was a message and a call and then its resulting fruit, not a political revolution. Far from that, how far from that he was, and we have already explained his call in some detail so there is no need to repeat that.
Then a further point of criticism of that orientation in general is that they lay down a principle which is that, "Islaam is a whole and cannot be divided up." And it is a great principle, if only it were followed by the methodology of the Pious Predecessors (as-Salafus-Saalih) without committing excesses. But unfortunately you find that they seriously contradict it because their strong attachment to the establishment of the Islamic State (and they call it: The Call to the Sovereign Authority of Allaah (al-Haakimiyyah)) has preoccupied them from giving importance to the foundation of Islaam , which is tawheed with all its categories. And to this time they have not realised, due to that preoccupation, that the necessity of giving full importance to the call to tawheed is just as pressing and urgent as it was in the time of the Messengers, including Muhammad , if not more so. So can any intelligent and just person deny this?! Then can any alert and attentive Muslim say or believe that the Muslims today are like the Muslims in the time of the preferred and best generations, not taking their beliefs and their acts of worship except from the Book and the Sunnah. Indeed the call to the sovereign authority (al-Haakimiyyah) of Allaah and its application is an important matter, and something important for every Muslim who understands Islaam (if its conditions are kept in mind), and everything which Allaah's Messenger came with is important and serious.
But we need to ask the question, "Does the call to Allaah's sovereign authority (al-Haakimiyyah) necessitate neglect of or falling short with regard to the most fundamental principle of Islaam?" The answer is, "No!" The fact of Allaah's sovereign authority (al-Haakimiyyah) must be applied beginning with the greatest of the affairs of Islaam, which is correct Belief ('aqeedah) with regard to Allaah, and His Majestic Names and perfect Attributes, with which Allaah has described Himself and made Himself known to us in His tremendous Book, and as was taught to us by our noble Prophet , so that our hearts may thereby be filled with light, eemaan, certain-Faith, awe and reverence.
Can it be permissible with regard to Allaah's sovereign authority (al-Haakimiyyah) and His religion that you deny or reject His Majestic names and His perfect attributes or their meanings, when they are the highest, most exalted and greatest of what is comprised in the Book of Allaah and the Sunnah of His Prophet?!!
Why do we not earnestly demand from the scholars of the Muslims that they apply the judgement of the Book of Allaah and the Sunnah of His Prophet in this extremely serious matter?!!
Can it be permissible with regard to Allaah's sovereign authority (al-Haakimiyyah) and His Sharee'ah, and the way He has laid down for the affairs, that many many of the Mulims contradict the methodology of the Prophets with regard to tawheed of worship, and making worship purely for Allaah alone, and instead take rivals besides Allaah to whom they make supplication and call for their needs, calling out to them in times of distress? Then they sink so deeply into this that they even make them partners with regard to Allaah's Lordship (Ruboobiyyah), so they come to believe that they know the Hidden and the Unseen (al-Ghayb) and have control over creation?!!
Is this not a flagrant assault upon the greatest of Allaah's rights?! Is this not the worst and severest of all transgression and oppression? So where then are the callers to Allaah's sovereign authority (al-Haakimiyyah) and what has happened to justice?!!
Can it be permissible in the Judgement of Allaah and His revealed Law that we close our eyes to the Sufis whilst they play with the beliefs and minds of the Muslims, and so corrupt and destroy them with the belief that Allaah is incarnate and to be found within His creation (Hulool), and that everything in existence is in reality Allaah (Wahdatul-Wujood) and that all religions are in reality the truth... and the rest of the misguided deviance of Sufism?!
Can it be permissible with regard to the sovereign authority of Allaah and His religion that thousands of tombs are constructed in most of the lands of Islaam, for people to perform Tawaaf around and devote themselves to, and travel to, and to consecrate huge amounts of money to, and to organise festivals for them, and for the Muslims to do such things around them and within them are a shocking disgrace and affront to Islaam, which only cause the Muslims and Islaam to be mocked and laughed at by their enemies from the idolaters, the Jews, the Christians and the Communists?
Can it be permissible with regard to the sovereign authority of Allaah that sunnahs be killed off and replaced by innovations, deviations and superstitious customs? Indeed these deviations and acts of shirk and innovations have wiped away the traces of tawheed and the traces of Islaam in general.
So I hope that the intellectuals from this orientation will try, after bearing in mind that Allaah observes them, with regard to themselves and the ummah, to give the due importance to the methodology of the Prophets, and to give each aspect of Islaam the effort it deserves, and that they keep in their minds the saying of Allaah's Messenger , "That Allaah should guide through you a single man is better for you than red camels."
It also used to be said to me, "These matters (the innovations and the acts of shirk) are things which have come to an end and been buried." But we see that they are still alive and still remain as secure as ever, and there are schools and governments which support them and protect them. They also have their own 'priests,' 'rabbis' and custodians. So why is it that we do not explain to the Muslims that these actions of jaahiliyyah contradict the sovereign authority of Allaah?! And why do we not call those guilty of such actions to submit to the Judgement of Allaah, and to submit to the sovereign authority of Allaah in all these spheres?!
So if our brothers who give such importance to the sovereign authority of Allaah realise and are certain that those who do these actions and hold such beliefs are contradicting the sovereign authority of Allaah and are not submitting to it in these things, then let them set to work earnestly and apply their full efforts to this area, and let them lay down plans of action, found schools, write books, and let the supports of the minbars quake with forceful speeches and correct guidance for correction of this. And I believe that if Ibraaheem, Nooh, Moosaa, Muhammad and all their brothers from the Prophets and Messengers, salawaatullaahi wa salaamuhu 'alayhim, were to come, along with all of the Companions, that they would not follow except their methodology which is reported from them in the Qur'aan; and they would obliterate the presence of these elevated tombs and every manifestation of shirk and misguidance. And Muhammad would order the companions of theological rhetoric and the Philosphers and all the sects who have deviated from the Qur'aan and the Sunnah to return to the Qur'aan and the Sunnah and, "By Allaah, if Moosaa were to come it would not be correct except for him to follow me."
Do you think that these are unimportant and insignificant matters?
But the matter is not as they suppose or as they are told, indeed the corruption caused by the evil scholars, the priests and the rabbis, and the leaders of innovation is worse and more dangerous than the corruption caused by the rulers and others, since the people are deceived and taken in by them, so that they love them and trust their words and the way which they are upon. So they follow them and because of them stray from the way laid down by Allaah.
Look at the Qur'aan which guides to what is right and proper and cures diseases and dangers with full knowledge, since it is Revelation sent down by One who is All-Knowing, All-Wise, Worthy of All-Praise. The Prophet lived in the same time as the Jews who had no state and were covered with humiliation and misery. So how many are the Aayaat that were sent down concerning them, and how many are the places where they are censured, and where their evil deeds, corrupt actions, and filthy beliefs are exposed. Allaah, the Most High, says:
He says concerning them:
And the Messenger lived in the time of the Christians who had empires and kings. The Roman Empire covered Europe, Greater Syria and Egypt. The Abyssinian Empire covered Abyssinia and Africa. So did the Qur'aan confront their rulers and kings, or did it confront the Christians themselves and their deviations, and at the head of them their monks and priests?!
Come, let us look to the Qur'aan to see who was more deserving of being confronted, and who actually was confronted. Allaah, the Most High, says:
And He said concerning the Jews and the Christians:
', 'Allaah, the Most High, said:
And 'Adiyy ibn Haatim entered upon Allaah's Messenger when he was reciting this Aayah, so he said, "By Allaah, O Messenger of Allaah, we do not worship them (i.e. the priests and rabbis)' So he said to him, "Do they not declare forbidden things to be lawful, and so you declare them to be lawful, and they declare lawful things to be forbidden, and so you declare them to be forbidden?" He said, "Yes." He said, "That is worship of them."
He said with regard to the Jews and the Christians:
Allaah's Messenger died whilst cursing the Jews and the Christians for their deviance in belief, so he said, "Allaah's curse is upon the Jews and the Christians, they took the graves of their Prophets as places of Prayer.'"
The Aayaat and ahaadeeth rebuking them for their deviations in beliefs and manners are many, and there is not a single Aayah mentioning a rebuke of the Christian kings and rulers present in the time of the Prophet, despite their evil and corruption.
So why does the Islamic da'wah have this orientation?
It is because this is the true and correct methodology of da'wah, and because the deviant leadership in religious matters is far more dangerous than corrupt leadership in political affairs, since religious leaders earn the trust and love of the people and their friendship. The people submit to them out of choice and lovingly. So if this religious leadership is misguided and deviant, then the people will deviate away from the methodology and way laid down by Allaah. They will lead them to Allaah's Anger and to the Fire, and even the rulers themselves may submit to these religious leaders and heads. So the Jew submits to religious leadership, the Christian does the same, and amongst those who claim attachment to Islaam, the Shee'ee, the Mu'tazilee, the Ash'aree, the Khaarijee, the Soofee and so on, are likewise.
So the deviant leaders and heads of religion are the ones who have corrupted the beliefs of this ummah, and their manners, their worship and their civilisation. They have ripped all this to shreds. So why do we flatter them and treat them and their danger lightly, when they are the source of every affliction?!! So over there we see the She'ah and the Raafidees and their various sects, and the evil heretics and apostates who are hidden amongst them. And over there are the leaders of Sufism and the heads of their many orders (tareeqahs) and their misguided beliefs, Unity of everything, the Creator and the created being one, the equality of all religions, that Allaah is incarnate within the creation, their acts of shirk and their innovations, and their deviations which do not stop at any limit. And over there are the heads of the Khawaarij, and the Mu'tazilah, the Murjiah and the Jabariyyah. All of these leaderships have crowned the ummah with trials and misfortunes whose extent is known only to Allaah. Then most of the Muslims are only puppets moved by these ideas just like the froth carried along by the torrent. So whoever sincerely and earnestly wishes to rectify the situation of the Muslims, then let him follow the way of the Prophets and their methodology, and at the head of them the final Prophet, and we have repeatedly made it clear.
I believe that those who lead the youth and the callers to deviate from this methodology do not know, which is the best that can be said in their regard, the methodology and the call of the Prophets, whether the political calls, the Soofee calls or whatever else, since Allaah's Messenger left us upon clear white guidance from which no one strays except that he is destroyed. And whoever gives the impression to the people that the sole source of corruption is the rulers, then he is contradicting what is affirmed by the Noble Qur'aan, the Prophetic Sunnah, human and Islamic history, and he is seeking to better the methodology of the Prophets, particularly when the callers restrict all their efforts and apply them solely to the political field. Rather the fundamental and primary source of corruption and danger are for those affirmed by Allaah upon the tongues of all His Messengers, and He laid down a methodology for them to block and rectify them. Then all other causes of corruption follow on from them. So let the caller to Allaah understand that, and let them cling to the Rope of Allaah, and let them adhere to the way of the Prophets, 'alayhimus-salaatu was-salaam.
So these were some examples from the thoughts of Maududi, and the thought of this orientation which is followed by many people in the east and the west and has become, in their minds, the essence of Islaam, and their final goal for which they struggle and sacrifice. Then this view produced from the thinking of Maududi and others like him was given added support by some Islamic authors such as 'Abdul-Qaadir 'Awdah who said, "The rulings of Islaam were prescribed for this worldly life and for the Religion, and the rulings which Islaam came with are of two types:
(i) Rulings meant for the establishment of the Religion, and this covers the rulings of matters of beliefs ('aqeedah) and worship.
(ii) Rulings meant for organisation of the State and the organised body of Believers, and establishment of relations between individuals and organised groups. This covers the rulings and mutual dealings, punishments, and personal, constitutional and state affairs... So Islaam combines the Religion and the wordly affairs, and the mosque and the state. So it is a Religion and a State, worship and leadership, and just as the Religion is a part of Islaam, then the government is its second part, indeed the more important part of it."!
So he believes that Islaam has two parts: Religion (worship) being one part, and the State (leadership) being the other part. Then he declares the more important part to be the second (government), and this is a slight to the importance of the Religion, of Belief ('aqeedah) and worship ('Ibaadah)...!
Then the intellectual Muslims in general, and some of the leaders of this orientation have realised that this orientation has led the youth into going beyond bounds in the importance they give to politics to the extent that it damages 'aqeedah (belief) and the Call to Allaah and harms the youth themselves. They therefore put forward advice for them, and from these writers are:
1 - Sayyid Qutb, rahimahullaah, who said, "And after long research and study of the movement of the Ikhwaanul-Muslimoon, and by comparing it with the first Islamic movement in Islaam, it becomes clear to my mind that the movement today faces a situation similar to that which human societies were upon when Islaam first came, with regard to ignorance of the reality of the Islamic 'aqeedah, and their being far from the straight way and Islamic manners. It is not just a case of being far from the Islamic system and the Islamic Sharee'ah. Then at the same time we find strong colonialist armies of the Zionists and the Christians who wage war upon every attempt at Islamic da'wah and they work to demolish it using localised organisations and systems to establish and realise their plots and enforce their instructions for attainment of this goal. Therefore whilst Islamic movements occupy themselves much of the time with localised and limited political movements, such as fighting a treaty or agreement, or fighting against a party, or an opposition coalition in elections, and likewise preoccupy themselves with demanding from the governments that they follow and apply the Islamic system and Sharee'ah, then at the same time the societies themselves as a whole have become far removed from understanding the Islamic 'aqeedah and from concern and respect for it, and from Islamic manners, therefore the Islamic movements must begin with the fundamental matter, and that is to revive the meaning of the Islamic 'aqeedah in the hearts and minds, and to educate and cultivate those who accept this call and the correct understanding with correct Islamic education and cultivation (tarbiyah), and not to waste time in current political events, and not attempting to bring about the obligatory Islamic system by seizing power before the Islamic basis is found in the societies, then they will themsleves seek the Islamic order because they comprehend its reality and wish to judge by it... So attainment of application of the system of Islaam and rule by Allaah's Sharee'ah is not a goal that can be attained in the short term, since it cannot be achieved until the societies themselves, or a good proportion of them, carrying weight and importance in the life of the common people, are conveyed to a correct understanding of the Islamic 'aqeedah. Then to the Islamic system, and correct Islamic cultivation upon the manners of Islaam. No matter how long and how many slow stages it takes." "This situation makes it a duty upon me that I begin with each youth and proceed slowly and carefully with the necessity of understanding the Islamic 'aqeedah correctly before discussing the details of the Islamic system and laws, and the necessity of avoidance of exerting efforts in present day domestic political movements in the Islamic lands, in order to bring about correct Islamic cultivation (tarbiyyah) with the largest number of people possible. Then after this the following steps come naturally, following on from acceptance of and cultivation upon the principle in the society itself. This is because human societies today, including the societies in the Islamic lands, have come to closely resemble or be just like the societies of the days of ignorance (Jaahiliyyah) on the day when Islaam first came. So it began with them from 'aqeedah and manners, not with the Islamic laws and system. So today it is binding that the movement and the da'wah begins from the same point which Islaam first began with, and that it proceeds with similar steps whilst observing some changed circumstances."
So these words from Sayyid and others is something good and correct which is a withdrawal from preoccupation with politics. However, unfortunately, Sayyid and others did not withdraw from mistakes in 'aqeedah and thinking which are still read and studied... so this has made it necessary that we should warn against Sayyid's mistakes in thinking and 'aqeedah in a special treatise, may Allaah facilitate its printing.
2 - 'Umar at-Tilmisaanee, rahimahullaah, having been dismayed by the total preoccupation of the youth with the political side and lack of attention and importance for the other aspects of Islaam said, "However, unfortunately, whilst I am writing this at the beginning of the eighties, the work of the youth in the field of Islaam is restricted to the political aspect which takes up the greatest share of their efforts, and has caused them great strain and has caused them to lose a great deal. It is as if nothing is counted as being from the Call of Allaah except the political aspect!...." Then he said, indicating the reasons which led them to preoccupation with politics, "And there is no doubt that continual political events and the means through which successive governments sought to solve them, imposed themselves upon Egypt to the extent that they forced the Muslim youth to give their view about them and to suggest the solution. And whoever prevents the University students from thinking and giving their view about what affects their country internally and externally, then he is preventing them from a natural right of theirs..." Then he said, "However, at the same time, I criticise the University students for the fact that they almost entirely restrict their efforts and attention to the political side, and to using means which are not to be approved of. They do not establish a conference in the University or in al-Azhar or in any other place except for the political goals. Then would that they were objective in these conferences. This is something which they must understand and keep to..."
So at-Tilmisaanee was correct in his criticism of this going overboard with regard to the political aspect, but he fell short in appraisal of its causes. Indeed, there is no doubt that what he mentioned is from the causes, but there are more important reasons producing a stronger effect upon the minds and emotions of the youth. These are the political thoughts which they grow up on, like the thoughts of al-Maududi which we have discussed in what has preceded in this treatise, and that was only a small part of a great deal from his writings and the writings of others from the leaders of this orientation.
So if it is the case that even some of the leaders of this oreintation have realised the craving of the youth for politics and their excessiveness in it to the point that, "They almost entirely restrict their efforts and attention to the political side, and to using means which are not to be approved of," as at-Tilmisaanee said, then why do they not re-examine, out of mercy upon this youth, their training (tarbiyyah) systems and those dangerous political thoughts which must be studied carefully in the light of the Book and the Sunnah, and whatever agrees with the Book and the Sunnah is to be confirmed, and whatever does not agree with them is to be abandoned?
It is essential that the ummah is cultivated upon the correct 'aqeedah, and this must be the foundation and starting point. And we ask Allaah that He grants the Islamic ummah and its callers that they accept and adhere to the methodology of the Prophets, wherein lies their well-being, success and ascendancy.
Soorah an-Nisaa (4):59.
Soorah Yoosuf (12):3.
Soorah Hood (11):49.
Soorah an-Nahl (16):36.
Soorah al-Ambiyaa (21):25.
Tajdeedud-Deen pp.32-33. He spoke at length about the civilisations and societies of the Prophets. So there is truth in part of what he said, and some of it is doubtful and in need of proofs, from the one who does not speak from his desires. So from these matters (i.e. which he attributes to them [transl.]) is his saying, "Organisation of the positions and offices in the branches of civil government, and the fundamentals of the laws, and derivation of detailed principles from these fundamentals, and organisation of the systems of justice, the policy and accounting, and levying taxes, and the section of economics and general works, and production, and business, and organisation of publications, information, education, organisation of civil-servants, training and organisation of armies, and the affairs of peace and war, and international relations and foreign affairs."
Even if it is devoid of tawheed and established upon innovations and false beliefs.
As indicated in the hadeeth of Aboo Dharr, radiyallaahu 'anhu, which has preceded. [Translator's note]
Soorah an-Nisaa (4):164.
Soorah Ghaafir (40):78.
Soorah al-Israa (17):36.
Soorah al-A'raaf (7):33.
Soorah al-Ambiyaa (21):68.
Soorah al-'Ankaaboot (29):26.
Soorah Ibraaheem (14):37.
Soorah al-Baqarah (2):127.
Abrdiged from a longer hadeeth reported by al-Bukhaaree (Eng. trans. 4/372-379 no.583).
Soorah al-Baqarah (2):125.
Soorah Ibraaheem (14):37.
Soorah an-Nahl (16):36.
Soorah an-Nisaa (4):165.
Soorah as-Saaffaat (37):171-173.
Soorah al-Mujaadilah (58):21.
Soorah al-Qamar (54):10-15.
Soorah al-Haaqqah (69):4-10.
Soorah al-Furqaan (25):37-39.
Soorah as-Saaffaat (37):114-116.
Soorah an-Naazi'aat (79):20-24.
Soorah Ghaafir (40):23-25.
Soorah al-A'raaf (7):127.
Soorah al-A'raaf (7):128.
Soorah al-A'raaf (7):129.
Soorah al-A'raaf (7):130.
Soorah ash-Shu'araa (26):52-67.
Soorah ad-Dukhaan (44):25-27.
The fifth example from the examples of the Messengers. [Translator's Note]
However, unfortunately, they give precedence over it to another principle, "We will co-operate in what we agree upon, and will excuse one another about those things where we disagree." This is a very broad statement which covers all differences whether in fundamental matters or points of detail, comprehending all the sects which claim attachment to Islaam.
Reported by al-Bukhaaree (Eng. trans. 5/43 no.51) and Muslim (Eng. trans. 4/1285 no.5918).
'Ilmul-Kalaam: Establishment of matters of belief ('aqeedah) by means of argument and debate, which they call 'intellect', instead of by means of textual proof, this being the way of the Mu'tazilah, Ash'arees, Maatureedees and others who stray from the way of the followers of the Sunnah. [Translator's Note]
Soorah an-Noor (24):15.
Soorah al-Maa'idah (5):59-64.
Soorah al-Maa'idah (5):13.
Soorah al-Maa'idah (5):14.
Soorah al-Maa'idah (5):18.
Soorah at-Tawbah (9):31.
Reported by Ahmad and at-Tirmidhee. [Translator's Note]
Soorah at-Tawbah (9):34.
Reported by al-Bukhaaree.
Soorah Yoosuf (12):108.
Al-Islaam Baina Jahl Abnaaihi Wa Ajz 'Ulamaa'ihi p.80 and it was printed by the Idaaraatul-Buhoothil-'Ilmiyyah wal-Iftaa wad-Da'wah wal-Irshaad, and they did not caution against the error in these words.
Al-Muslimoon magazine (1st year, no.3, 4/61405H, p.7) part of a series entitled, "Why did they execute me?" and it has been printed as a book with the same title, and this is found in it on p.28.
It appears from this that Sayyid Qutb persisted in what he affirmed in his books such as al-Dhilaal and Ma'aalim fit-Tareeq (Milestones) and al-'Adaalatul-Ijtimaa'iyyah (Social Justice), that present-day Islamic societies are societies of ignorance (jaahiliyyah), and that Islaam refuses to recognise their correctness and their Islaam. But our witness of the Islamic nature of this is due to examining the results that come about, which is that being totally preoccupied with politics harms the Islamic youth and does not benefit them.
Limaadhaa A'damoonee pp.6-7 in the magazine, and pp.28-30 and 34 of the book.
The first Arabic edition of Adwaa Islaamiyyah 'alaa 'Aqeedah Sayyid Qutb wa fikrihi was printed in 1414H and is a book of 238 printed pages, printed by Maktabatul-Ghurabaa in al-Madeenah. [Translator's Note]
Al-Mawhoob Ustaadhul-Jeel p.90.
Author: Shaykh Rabee' Ibn Haadee al-Madkhalee
Source: Manhajul-Anbiyaa fid-Da’wah illAllaah feehil-Hikmah wal-’Aql
Translator: Abu Talhah Dawood Burbank (rahimahullaah)